Casino del rio 50 no deposit – Trump Taj Mahal employee shot on gaming floor of Atlantic City casino

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Trump Taj Mahal employee shot on gaming floor of Atlantic City casino

ATLANTIC CITY — A Trump Taj Mahal Casino Resort employee was shot today on the gambling floor and a suspect is in custody, police said. The employee’s injuries do not appear to be life-threatening, police said.

It was not immediately known what led to the shooting, which happened around 3:30 p.m. today.The injured worker is being treated at Atlantic City Medical Center. New Jersey State Police did not immediately have the injured worker’s name or gender.

Police said they recovered the gun used in the shooting.

It was the second incident involving a gunshot at the casino this year. On Jan. 30, a suspect in a New York embezzlement case pulled a gun and threatened to kill himself in an office there, sparking an 11-hour standoff that included his accidentally firing a shot before he surrendered.

In that incident, the man, from Coram, N.Y., was being sought by New York authorities who had tracked him to the casino and were escorting him into a security office.

During questioning, the man pulled out a handgun. A police officer pushed him into a holding cell and locked the door.

The Taj Mahal is the largest of three Atlantic City casinos run by Trump Entertainment Resorts, the gambling company formerly run by Donald Trump.

Trump relinquished control of it during a 2005 bankruptcy, and in February he resigned as its chairman when bond holders rebuffed his efforts to buy it.

The casino, located on the Boardwalk, is one of the largest in Atlantic City, with 4,000 slot machines and 210 tables games. It opened a 782-room second hotel tower last September.

The Taj Mahal, along with the Trump Plaza Hotel and Casino and the Trump Marina Hotel and Casino, is in bankruptcy court following a February Chapter 11 filing. Thursday is the deadline for Trump Marina to be sold to a former protege of Trump.

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Master Electronics Repair !

Welcome to Master Electronics Repair! website.Here you will find:Service Modes, Circuit Diagrams,Service manuals, Firmware Update procedure, Disassemble procedure, Universal remote control setup codes, Troubleshooting, Diagnosing, Measuring, and more. of many of LCD/LED TV/Displays,others various electronic apparates,trough many technical notes and tips/tricks to help repairing/fixing Troubles/ faults,for electrical technicians.This site helps you to save the Earth from electronic waste!


Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and technical information about Service Modes, Circuit Diagrams, Firmware Update procedure, Disassemble procedure, Universal remote control set-up codes, Troubleshooting and more.

If you go into the profession, you will obtain or have access to a variety of tech tips databases HERE IT IS Master Electronics Repair !.

These are an excellent investment where the saying: ‘time-is-money’ rules. However, to learn, you need to develop a general troubleshooting approach – a logical, methodical, method of narrowing down the problem. A tech tip database might suggest: ‘Replace C536’ for a particular symptom. This is good advice for a specific problem on one model. However, what you really want to understand is why C536 was the cause and how to pinpoint the culprit in general even if you don’t have a service manual or schematic and your tech tip database doesn’t have an entry for your sick TV or VCR.

While schematics are nice, you won’t always have them or be able to justify the purchase for a one-of repair. Therefore, in many cases, some reverse engineering will be necessary. The time will be well spent since even if you don’t see another instance of the same model in your entire lifetime, you will have learned something in the process that can be applied to other equipment problems.

As always, when you get stuck, checking out a tech-tips database may quickly identify your problem and solution.In that case, you can greatly simplify your troubleshooting or at least confirm a diagnosis before ordering parts.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

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. The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory. . . . . . . .

Don’t forget the past , the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

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Wednesday, 6 March 2019


One for all URC 3451 Universals remote 4 diagit codes for television and how t program URC3451 universal remote – Universal remote programming

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  • How to program the remote
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One for all URC 3451

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Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Sure Fun Times, A working TV Discovered with a CRT Oscilloscope !

Safety Hazards:

Why some people do repairs themselved then? If you can do the repairs yourself, the equation changes dramatically asyour parts costs will be 1/2 to 1/4 of what a professional will chargeand of course your time is free. The educational aspects may also beappealing. You also will learn a lot in the process.

Consumer electronic equipment like TVs, computer monitors, microwave ovens, and electronic flash units, use voltages at power levels that are potentially lethal. Even more so for industrial equipment like lasers and anything else that is either connected to the power line, or uses or generates high voltage.

Normally, these devices are safely enclosed to prevent accidental contact. However, when troubleshooting, testing, making adjustments, and during repair procedures, the cabinet will likely be open and/or safety interlocks may be defeated. Home-built or modified equipment, despite all warnings and recommendations to the contrary – could exist in this state for extended periods of time – or indefinitely.

Depending on overall conditions and your general state of health, there is a wide variation of voltage, current, and total energy levels that can kill.

Microwave ovens in particular are probably THE most dangerous household appliance to service. There is high voltage – up to 5,000 V or more – at high current – more than an amp may be available momentarily. This is an instantly lethal combination.

TVs and monitors may have up to 35 kV on the CRT but the current isn’t low – like a wrong legend saying a “couple of milliamps” but relatively high because of the boost circuit technology and transformer design. However, the CRT capacitance can hold a painful charge for a long time. In addition, portions of the circuitry of TVs and monitors as well as all other devices that plug into the wall socket are line connected. This is actually even more dangerous than the high voltage due to the greater current available – and a few hundred volts can make you just as dead as 35 kV!

Electronic flash units and strobe lights, and pulsed lasers have large energy storage capacitors which alone can deliver a lethal charge – long after the power has been removed. This applies to some extent even to those little disposable pocket cameras with flash which look so innocent being powered from a single 1.5 V AA battery. Don’t be fooled – they are designed without any bleeder so the flash can be ready for use without draining the battery!

Even some portions of apparently harmless devices like VCRs and CD players – or vacuum cleaners and toasters – can be hazardous (though the live parts may be insulated or protected – but don’t count on it!

This information also applies when working on other high voltage or line connected devices like Tesla Coils, Jacobs Ladders, plasma spheres, gigawatt lasers, hot and cold fusion generators, cyclotrons and other particle accelerators, as well as other popular hobby type projects. 🙂

In addition, read the relevant sections of the document for your particular equipment for additional electrical safety considerations as well as non-electrical hazards like microwave radiation or laser light. Only the most common types of equipment are discussed in the safety guidelines, below.

SAFETY guidelines:

Note that the danger to you is not only in your body providing a conducting path, particularly through your heart. Any involuntary muscle contractions caused by a shock, while perhaps harmless in themselves, may cause collateral damage. There are likely to be many sharp edges and points inside from various things like stamped sheet metal shields and and the cut ends of component leads on the solder side of printed wiring boards in this type of equipment. In addition, the reflex may result in contact with other electrically live parts and further unfortunate consequences.

The purpose of this set of guidelines is not to frighten you but rather to make you aware of the appropriate precautions. Repair of TVs, monitors, microwave ovens, and other consumer and industrial equipment can be both rewarding and economical. Just be sure that it is also safe!

  • Don’t work alone – in the event of an emergency another person’s presence may be essential.
  • Always keep one hand in your pocket when anywhere around a powered line-connected or high voltage system.
  • Wear rubber bottom shoes or sneakers. An insulated floor is better than metal or bare concrete but this may be outside of your control. A rubber mat should be an acceptable substitute but a carpet, not matter how thick, may not be a particularly good insulator.
  • Wear eye protection – large plastic lensed eyeglasses or safety goggles.
  • Don’t wear any jewelry or other articles that could accidentally contact circuitry and conduct current, or get caught in moving parts.
  • Set up your work area away from possible grounds that you may accidentally contact.
  • Have a fire extinguisher rated for electrical fires readily accessible in a location that won’t get blocked should something burst into flames.
  • Use a dust mask when cleaning inside electronic equipment and appliances, particularly TVs, monitors, vacuum cleaners, and other dust collectors.
  • Know your equipment: TVs and monitors may use parts of the metal chassis as ground return yet the chassis may be electrically live with respect to the earth ground of the AC line. Microwave ovens use the chassis as ground return for the high voltage. In addition, do not assume that the chassis is a suitable ground for your test equipment!
  • If circuit boards need to be removed from their mountings, put insulating material between the boards and anything they may short to. Hold them in place with string or electrical tape. Prop them up with insulation sticks – plastic or wood.
  • If you need to probe, solder, or otherwise touch circuits with power off, discharge (across) large power supply filter capacitors with a 2 W or greater resistor of 100 to 500 ohms/V approximate value (e.g., for a 200 V capacitor, use a 20K to 100K ohm resistor). Monitor while discharging and/or verify that there is no residual charge with a suitable voltmeter. In a TV or monitor, if you are removing the high voltage connection to the CRT (to replace the flyback transformer for example) first discharge the CRT contact (under the insulating cup at the end of the fat red wire). Use a 1M to 10M ohm 1W or greater wattage resistor on the end of an insulating stick or the probe of a high voltage meter. Discharge to the metal frame which is connected to the outside of the CRT.
  • For TVs and monitors in particular, there is the additional danger of CRT implosion – take care not to bang the CRT envelope with your tools. An implosion will scatter shards of glass at high velocity in every direction. There is several tons of force attempting to crush the typical CRT. Always wear eye protection. While the actual chance of a violent implosion is relatively small, why take chances? (However, breaking the relatively fragile neck off the CRT WILL be embarrassing at the very least.)
  • Connect/disconnect any test leads with the equipment unpowered and unplugged. Use clip leads or solder temporary wires to reach cramped locations or difficult to access locations.
  • If you must probe live, put electrical tape over all but the last 1/16″ of the test probes to avoid the possibility of an accidental short which could cause damage to various components. Clip the reference end of the meter or scope to the appropriate ground return so that you need to only probe with one hand.
  • Perform as many tests as possible with power off and the equipment unplugged. For example, the semiconductors in the power supply section of a TV or monitor can be tested for short circuits with an ohmmeter.
  • Provide a reliable means of warning that power is applied and that high voltage filter capacitor(s) still hold a charge during servicing. For example, solder a neon indicator lamp (e.g., an NE2 in series with a 100K ohm resistor) across the line input and a super high brightness LEDs in series with 100K, 1 W resistors across the main filter capacitor(s).
  • Use an isolation transformer if there is any chance of contacting line connected circuits. A Variac(tm) (variable autotransformer) is not an isolation transformer! However, the combination of a Variac and isolation transformer maintains the safety benefits and is a very versatile device. See the document “Repair Briefs, An Introduction”, available at this site, for more details.
  • The use of a GFCI (Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter) protected outlet is a good idea but may not protect you from shock from many points in a line connected TV or monitor, or the high voltage side of a microwave oven, for example. (Note however, that, a GFCI may nuisance trip at power-on or at other random times due to leakage paths (like your scope probe ground) or the highly capacitive or inductive input characteristics of line powered equipment.) A GFCI is also a relatively complex active device which may not be designed for repeated tripping – you are depending on some action to be taken (and bad things happen if it doesn’t!) – unlike the passive nature of an isolation transformer. A fuse or circuit breaker is too slow and insensitive to provide any protection for you or in many cases, your equipment. However, these devices may save your scope probe ground wire should you accidentally connect it to a live chassis.
  • When handling static sensitive components, an anti-static wrist strap is recommended. However, it should be constructed of high resistance materials with a high resistance path between you and the chassis (greater than 100K ohms). Never use metallic conductors as you would then become an excellent path to ground for line current or risk amputating your hand at the wrist when you accidentally contacted that 1000 A welder supply!
  • Don’t attempt repair work when you are tired. Not only will you be more careless, but your primary diagnostic tool – deductive reasoning – will not be operating at full capacity.
  • Finally, never assume anything without checking it out for yourself! Don’t take shortcuts!

Many people who mistakenly feel that ‘old technology’ is somehow more user-friendly, in some strange way automatically good – merely because it is old. Don’t be fooled! Approach old equipment with an open and alert mind and realise that a hot chassis, or a resistor line cord, or asbestos insulation, or selenium rectifiers require much more thought and consideration for safety.

Live chassis are indiscriminate in whom they kill and even if you are a thoughtful, careful kind of person, that doesn’t mean the last person who handled the set was.

Vintage radio and television receivers use ‘live chassis’ techniques, in which the chassis is connected directly to one side of the incoming mains supply. This means they can be lethal to carry out repair or servicing work on, unless the appropriate safety measures are in place.

Another thing about live-chassis sets – live spindles. We’ve touched on this already but it’s worth making the point once more. The shafts of switches and potentiometers fixed to the chassis may well be at chassis potential and thus live. The bakelite or wood cabinet is insulated but these shafts are not, and if someone lost the proper grub screw and replaced a knob using a cheesehead screw, the next person to grip that knob may get a dose of 250 volts. Originally these grub screws were sealed and embedded in wax but you cannot rely on subsequent tinkerers having the same high standards.

Even in more orthodox apparatus standards of insulation were not always as high as they are now. Soldered connections to HT and mains wiring should always have rubber or plastic sleeving but in times gone by this was often omitted (or it may since have perished). Beware too of kinked and frayed braiding on cloth-covered mains cords, particularly when the cord has a dropper conductor.

If you are not satisfied that you fully understand the risks involved in this sort of work, do not proceed any further. Instead seek advice and assistance from a competent technician or engineer.

Whenever you acquire a new treasure there’s always a terrific temptation to try it out. With mains-driven equipment that means plugging it in and seeing if it works. Well don’t, not until you have made some quick checks.

Before contemplating connecting any unknown receiver to the mains supply, spend a little time inspecting it for signs of missing or loose parts, blown fuses, overheating or even fire damage. Use a meter to check obvious points to ensure no short circuit exists (e.g. across the mains input). If you then decide to apply power keep clear but be observant since an elderly electrolytic might explode! This can be avoided if you can apply power gradually through a variac. Auto-transformers are handy for supplying reduced power to sets being repaired but they are not a substitute for a proper isolation transformer!

If you are working with electricity and your work area has a concrete floor, a rubber mat is essential, particularly during damp weather! Where possible try to arrange a neat working area away from water or central heating pipes. For safety try to arrange that this area is separate from the area occupied by your family. This is emphasised because inadvertently rushing to answer a telephone you might just leave a TV chassis connected to a supply and curious little fingers know nothing of the dangers of electricity – or, for that matter – the lethal vacuum encased within every picture tube!

Many younger enthusiasts may not be aware of the dangers of mishandling tubes, in particular the old round types found in early TVs. When handling these tubes eye protection should be worn and tubes must not be left lying around, they must be stored in boxes. The glass is surprising fragile and can implode without any provocation or warning. Bits of glass flying around at high speed can be deadly. The notes following are inspired by Malcolm Burrell again.

Picture tubes are perhaps one of the most hazardous items in any TV receiver. This is because most are of glass construction and contain a very high vacuum. If you measured the total area of glass in any picture tube then estimated the pressure of air upon it at 14.7lb. per square inch, you would discover that the total pressure upon the device could amount to several tons! Fracturing the glass suddenly would result in an extremely rapid implosion such that fragments of glass, metal and toxic chemicals would be scattered over a wide area, probably causing injury to anyone in close proximity. In modern workshops it is now a rule that protective goggles are worn when handling picture tubes.

The weakest point in most picture tubes is where the thin glass neck containing the electron gun is joined to the bowl. It is therefore essential that you refrain from handling the tube by its neck alone. Once a tube is removed from the receiver hold it vertically with the neck uppermost and one hand beneath the screen with the other steadying the device by the neck.With larger devices it is sometimes easier to grip the peripheral of the screen with both hands.

Until the advent of reinforced picture tubes, most were mounted in the cabinet or on the TV chassis by some form of metal band clamped around the face.Never support the weight of the tube by this band since it has been known for the tube to slide out! Some of the larger tubes are extremely heavy. It may, therefore, be easier to enlist assistance.

Before starting to remove a tube, first discharge the final anode connection to the chassis metalwork and preferably connect a shorting lead to this connection whilst you are working. It might be convenient to keep a spare piece of EHT cable with a crocodile clip at one end and a final anode connector at the other.

Exercise care when removing picture tubes from elderly equipment. You may find that the deflection coils have become stuck to the neck. It is extremely dangerous to use a screwdriver prise them away. Gently heating with a hairdryer or soaking in methylated spirit is safer.

Disposal of picture tubes also requires care. Unless rendered safe they should never be placed in dustbins or skips. Many engineers swipe the necks off tubes in cavalier fashion using a broom handle but this is not recommended. A safer method is to make a hole in the side of a stout carton, preferably one designed to hold a picture tube. The tube is placed in the carton and the neck broken using a broom handle. The carton should then be clearly labelled that it contains chemicals and broken glass!

Therefore people who believe they can conquer nature are clueless that the laws of nature are a precondition of their existence. Their weapon is a miserable idea.When man attempts to rebel against the iron logic of Nature, he comes into struggle with the principles to which he himself owes his existence as a man. And this attack must lead to his own doom.

Think for yourself.

Otherwise you have to believe what other people tell you.

For most people thinking is a matter of fortune.

A society based on individualism is an oxymoron.

Freedom is at first the freedom to starve.

A wise fool speaks, because he has something to say.

A fool speaks, because he has to say something.

A wise fool is silent, because there is nothing to say.

A fool is silent, because he has nothing to say.

Resist or regret

Work for what’s good for our people

The man who does not exercise the first law of nature—that of self preservation — is not worthy of living and breathing the breath of life.

We now live in a nation where doctors destroy health, lawyers destroy justice, universities destroy knowledge, governments destroy freedom, the press destroys information, religion destroys morals and our banks destroy the economy.

The globalist argument is that if only we erase distinctions, obliterate identities, put everyone on a level playing field, etc.. we can eliminate war and everyone can be so prosperous and efficient, such great cogs in a well-oiled global machine.

There will be no more historical grievances because people will no longer even care, they’ll have no connection to the past, no foolish pride in past accomplishments of people totally unrelated to them.

A globalized culture, no borders, everyone a citizen of the world.

Know this: I will never acquiesce to this corrupt, inhuman, Borg-like vision. The dangerous lunatics who push us towards their globalized “utopia” are my enemy. How exactly all this will play out, whether through wars, or whether we can thwart the globalist agenda peacefully (this is my hope of course) I don’t know. But I do know that unless people are willing to fight and die, globalism will win out in the end.

The actual crimes committed by the EU against the European peoples are directly in violation of the 1948 UN genocide convention, Article II: (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part, (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group, (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

* The man who does not exercise the first law of nature—that of self preservation — is not worthy of living and breathing the breath of life.


SAFETY guidelines in GERMAN:


Der Umgang mit alten Radios und alten Fernsehern birgt gewisse Gefahren. Nur Fachleute sollen Radios oder Fernseher öffnen und unter Stromspannung daran arbeiten. Ich bin aber nicht weltfremd, deshalb bin ich mir im Klaren, daß so mancher “Hobby-Elektroniker” auch an seine Geräte rangeht, um zu reparieren. Deshalb die weiter unten folgenden Hinweise. Machen Sie sich aber deutlich, daß elektrische Geräte Sie schädigen können. Lesen Sie diese Hinweise vor Reparatur-Aktivitäten. Sie bleiben aber trotzdem selber für Ihre Sicherheit verantwortlich. Reparieren Sie nur Geräte, wenn Sie die Vorgänge verstehen. Ersetzen Sie nur Bauteile, deren Funktion Sie verstehen. Sie sind unsicher geworden? Gut so, dann Hände weg vom geöffneten Gerät. Und bitte, lesen Sie das Schlusswort für Einsteiger und “alte Hasen” am Ende der Hinweise.

Wenn Sie sich nicht mit dem Messen elektrischer Spannungen, Ströme und Widerständen auskennen, ist es sowieso sinnlos, einen Reparaturversuch vorzunehmen, vielleicht unter Ausnahme eines Röhrentausches.

Seien Sie bei alten Radios auch vorsichtig im Umgang mit den Geräten, selbst wenn sie ungeöffnet sind. Betreiben Sie die Oldtimer nicht ohne Aufsicht. Die alten heisswerdenden Bauteile können anfangen zu brennen, mangelnde Isolierung kann Stromschläge auslösen.

Nun zu den Hinweisen:


Entfernen Sie, wenn möglich vor Restaurierungs-und Reparatur-Arbeiten immer die Verbindung zum Strom-Netz. Bedenken Sie:

Die Netz-Kondensatoren können noch lange nach dem Ausschalten hohe Spannung speichern. Bei Fernsehern kann die Bildröhre noch Stunden oder Tage Hochspannung geladen halten.

Entladen Sie die Netzteil-Kondensatoren mit einem 30 K OHM Widerstand, bevor Sie am Gerät arbeiten (ca. 45 Sekunden).

Bringen Sie UNBEDINGT einen Fehlerstrom-Schutz-Schalter (FI-Schalter) in die Stromzuführung Ihres Arbeitsplatzes. Benutzen Sie AUSSERDEM am besten einen Trenntransformator. (Fernseh- und Radio-Fachwerkstätten arbeiten ausschließlich mit sogenannten Trenntransformatoren für die Netzstromversorgung des zu reparierenden Gerätes. Dadurch wird die “galvanische” Verbindung zum eigentlichen Netz unterbunden.)

Wenn Sie ein Gerät unter Strom reparieren (z.B. bei Messungen): Kommen Sie nicht mit den Händen oder dem Kopf an spannungsführende Teile. Stromschlag droht! Wenn Sie Messungen unter Strom machen müssen:

In Radios können Spannungen bis zu ca 300 Volt auftreten. Schon Spannungen über 60 Volt können bei Stromfluß durch den Körper lebensgefährlich sein. Bei Fernsehern liegen am Hochspannungsteil und an der Bildröhre bis zu 30000 Volt Spannung an. In der Zeilenendstufe und am Zeilentrafo sind ebenfalls hohe Spannungen von einigen Tausend Volt vorhanden.

Nur eine Hand mit der Messgeräte-Prüfspitze ist am oder im Gerät. Ihre andere Hand befindet sich in Ihrer Hosen-Tasche, Ihr Kopf berührt kein Metall-Teil des Radios. So können Sie nicht mit großen Körperstrecken in den Stromkreis gelangen! Übertriebene Vorsicht ? Nein: Kleveres handeln! Ihr Arbeitsplatz sollte in Griffnähe keine Masse-Teile (wie Zentralheizung, Wasserleitungen oder Fernseh- oder Kabel-Fernseh-Antennen) haben. Der Fussboden muss hochisolierend sein. Niemals barfuß.

Allstrom-Radios. Oft erkennbar an Namens-Zusätzen, wie z.B. “VE301GW” für Gleich/Wechselstrom. Diese Radio können sehr gefährlich für Sie werden. Noch bis ca. 1963 sind sogenannte Allstrom-Geräte gebaut worden und auch noch heute bei Sammlern in Gebrauch. Diese Radios hatten keinen Netztransformator. Es besteht bei diesen Geräten “galvanische” Verbindung vom 230 V Wechselstrom-Netz zum Chassis (Masse) des Radios. Wenn der Netzstecker “falsch” herum in die Steckdose gesteckt wird, liegt am Chassis 230 V gegenüber dem Schutz-Kontakt der Steckdose. Stromschlag droht. Gefahr beim Berühren der Antenne oder Erde oder sogar wenn Sie am geschlossenen Gerät Metallteile berühren! Schließen Sie niemals eine Erde direkt an das Chassis eines Allströmers an. Immer nur über die Erdbuchse und dem dort vorhandenen Trennkondensator. In keinem Fall dürfen Sie dabei eine Hand am Erdstecker und die andere Hand am Chassis haben. Das gilt sinngemäß auch für Fernsehempfänger, die damals fast ausschließlich Allstromgeräte waren. Eine Isolationsmessung (mit einem Ohm-Meter) der Antennenkoppel- oder Erdekopppelkondensatoren sollte vor Inbetriebnahme obligatorisch sein. Allstromgeräte dürfen an heutigen Wechselstromnetzten betrieben werden.

Gleichstrom-Radios. Schliessen Sie niemals reine Gleichstrom-Radios an das heutige Wechselstromnetz an. Es gibt derzeit keine Gleichstrom-Netze mehr.

Wie erkenne ich ein Gleichstromradio? Oft ist ein NUR ein G Bestandteil des Modelnamens. Z.B. VE301G. Auf der Rückwand ist bei der Strom-Beschreibung ein “-” oder ein “=” und / oder das Wort “Gleichstrom” oder “Gleichspannung” zu finden.

Fernseher. Die Bildröhre eines Fernsehers birgt neben den elektrischen Gefahren auch mechanische Gefahren. In der Bildröhre ist ein Fast-Vakuum. Insbesondere der Bildröhrenhals ist gegen Stoß oder Druck hochempfindlich. Wird das Glas beschädigt, erfolgt mit hoher Wucht eine Implosion, die in ihrer Wirkung einer Explosion gleichzusetzen ist. Glassplitter können wie Geschoße durch den Raum fliegen.

Hände weg von der Hochspannungsleitung vom Hochspannungsteil zur Bildröhre . Fehler in diesem Bereich sind nicht für Hobby-Reparateure . Hände auch weg vom Bildröhrenwechsel . Bildröhren können noch tagelang nach einer Benutzung am Hochspannungsanschluß höchste Spannungen aufweisen!

Nochmals: Bei historischen Fernsehern mit einer Bildröhre ( also keiner LCD oder Plasma-Anzeige ) liegen am Hochspannungsteil und an der Bildröhre bis zu 30000 Volt Spannung an. In der Zeilenendstufe und am Zeilentrafo sind ebenfalls hohe Spannungen von einigen Tausend Volt vorhanden. Strömschläge in diesem Bereich können tödlich sein .

Alte Radios und Fernseher können sehr heiss werden. Vermeiden Sie Hitzestau.

Lassen Sie das Radio oder den Fernseher während der Reparatur oder des Probelaufes nicht aus den Augen! Abstand des Gerätes zu brennbaren Material!

Wenn Sie nicht am Platz sind, alles ausschalten, offene Stromleitungen entfernen. Kinder oder Familienmitglieder könnten in Ihrer Abwesenheit an die Geräte oder den heissen Lötkolben kommen. Bei offenen Fernsehern den Raum in Ihrer Abwesenheit vor dem Betreten sichern.

Sie haben trotz der Beachtung der Hinweise einen Schlag bekommen?

Prüfen Sie dann sofort folgendes:

1) Hatten Sie (auch kurzfristig) eine Bewusstseinstrübung? War Ihnen schwindlig? Trat Unwohlsein (Übelkeit) auf? Hatten (oder haben) Sie Herz-Rythmus-Störungen? Engegefühl in der Brust? Händezittern, Schweissausbruch?

2) Sollten Sie eine dieser Fragen mit ja beantworten müssen, ist eine SOFORTIGE Vorstellung beim Arzt notwendig. Scheuen Sie sich dann nicht, einen Notarzt oder den Rettungsdienst kommen zu lassen!

3) Sprechen Sie mit Familienangehörigen über diese Gefahren, damit diese u.U. im Fall eines Stromschlages die richtigen Schritte einleiten, wenn Sie das nicht können.

Weitere Gefahren und Hinweise auf Handlungen, die Sie nie vollziehen sollten:

Als Nichtfachmann ein Radio öffnen und sogar unter Strom betreiben, ohne vorher diese Sicherheitsbestimmungen gelesen zu haben.

Ein Gerät, das Jahrzehnte nicht in Betrieb war, ungeprüft einzuschalten ! (Vorher Sichtprüfung, ob alle Teile vorhanden und fehlerfrei sind, einschließlich der Netzkabel. Ist die richtige Betriebsspannung eingestellt? Ist das Gerät vielleicht ein Gleichstrom-Radio? Dann keinesfalls am heutigen Wechselstom-Netzt betreiben ! Elektrolytkondensatoren auf Kapazität prüfen, am besten vorher formieren.)

– Ein innen ungereinigtes Gerät in Betrieb nehmen. Siehe Gerätereinigung.

– Ein Gerät unbeobachtet laufen lassen, insbesondere, wenn es zuvor jahrelang nicht in Gebrauch war.

– Abgerissene Drähte IRGENDWO festmachen oder anlöten.

Ein Radio mit Wasser und Reinigungsmitteln “reinigen”. (Wasser in Mengen hat im Radio (auch aussen am Gehäuse) NICHTS zu suchen. Ein Radiochassis hat nichts in einer wassergefüllten Badewanne zu suchen. In Ausnahmefällen können feuchte Tücher genutzt werden, wenn die Restfeuchtigkeit sofort wieder entfernt wird.)

– Skalenseile ölen oder fetten oder “schmieren”.

– Skalenscheiben auf der beschrifteten Seite mit irgendwelchen Flüssigkeiten oder Sprühreinigern behandeln.

– Irgendwelche Metall- oder Plastikteile ölen oder fetten.

– Das Chassis mit Sprühöl einspritzen.

– Ein Radio während der Reparaur auf den Kopf drehen.

– Kontakte mit Waffenöl zu “reinigen”!

– – Einfach auf VERDACHT alle Bauteile oder Bauteilegruppen tauschen! Oftmals funktionieren dann die Geräte nicht mehr einwandfrei, weil: Der Ersatz nur nach Kapazitäts-, Widerstands- oder Induktivitäts-Werte reicht nicht aus. Bei Kapazitäten kommt es auf Spannungsfestigkeit und u.U. auf Temperatur-Wert an. Bei Widerständen auf Wattzahl und u.U. auf Bauform. Bei Induktivitäten (Spulen, Transformatoren, Drosseln) auf Bauform usw. an

“Überflüssige” Bodenabdeckungen nach der Reparatur nicht mehr wieder montieren. (Viele dieser Abdeckungen haben die Aufgabe, Störstrahlung vom Gerät zu verringern und oder Brummeinstrahlungen in das Gerät zu reduzieren.)

– Abschirmkappen von Röhren, ZF-Filtern, UKW-Teilen, usw. nach der Reparatur wegzulassen.

– Ohne genaue Sachkenntnis die ZF-Filter-Kerne oder HF-Teilkerne verdrehen (“festziehen”) .

– Die Lautsprecherbespannung feucht reinigen. (Teppichreiniger nur im Ausnahemfall anwenden.)

– Keine grösseren Mengen Waschbenzin, Spiritus, Feuerzeugbenzin usw. in geschlossenen Räumen verwenden.

– Holzgehäuse mit Fenstersprühreinigern behandeln.

– Abgeschirmte Leitungen bei einer Reparatur durch unabgeschirmte Leitungen ersetzen.

– Schabende Haushaltsreinigungsschwämme am Gehäusen einsetzen.

– Am Gerät ohne genaue Sachkenntnis herummessen. Details dazu.

– Mit dem Schraubenzieher irgendwie im Gerät herumstochern.

– Vermeintliche Schrauben im Radio fest anziehen.

– In Verbindung mit einem Radio einen Hammer in die Hand nehmen.

– Elektrische Kontakte mit irgendeinem Haushaltsreinigern “verbessern” oder mit Lebensmittelen fetten oder ölen.

– Elektrische Kontakte mit Standardölen wie Waffenöl behandeln.

– Röhren die nicht vom Typ identisch sind, untereinander tauschen.

– Sicherungen überbrücken oder mit höheren Werten ersetzen.

– Mit Hartlötern und Hartlot und Lötern mit offener Flämme an Lötverbindungen arbeiten.

– Ersatzheizwiderstände beim teilweisen Ersatz mit dem alten Widerstand verlöten. (Diese Widerstände können so heiss werden, dass sie sich selbst auslöten ! Nur schrauben, schweissen oder hartlöten.)

– Hitzeableitbleche oder sonstiges Hitzeableitmaterial bei der Reparatur weglassen.

– Madenschrauben an Knöpfen mit Gewalt festziehen oder lösen.

– Zur Aufspürung von Termofehlern ein Gerät absichtlich abdecken, damit es “richtig warm” wird. (Ein ablenkendes Telefongespräch und schon ist der Wohnungsbrand da.)

– Abgerissene Drähte mit Klebstoff ankleben.

– Geräte mit zerbröselter Netzschnur ans Stromnetz anschliessen.

– Geräte ohne Netzstecker nur mit dem Kabel irgendwie in die Steckdose fummeln oder mit Bananensteckern einen Steckerersatz herstellen.

– Die fehlende Netzschnur mit Klingeldraht ersetzen.

– Batteriefächer mit Resten von ausgelaufener Batterieflüssigkeit ungereinigt weiterverwenden.

– Radios mit ausgeprägten Staubschichten oder Staubfettschichten im Gerät ungereinigt in Betrieb nehmen.

– Holzgehäuse mit Autoreinigern und / oder Autopolitur (besser mit Möbelpolitur) behandeln.

* Urdoxwiderstände mit gebrochenen Gläsern mit den Händen berühren. GEFAHR !

– Reinigungsarbeiten mit Aceton durchführen.

– Ausgebaute Schrauben und Kleinteile während der Reparatur IRGENDWO weglegen. (Im Zweifel gehen sie verloren.)

– Demontage von Baugruppen die mit verschiedenen Leitungen zu Chassis verbunden sind, ohne Leitungsskizze. (Später weiss man nicht mehr, was wo hin gehört.)

– Heisse Röhren mit Wasser oder Reinigungssray anspritzen.

Sowas macht doch Keiner? DOCH, SOWAS KOMMT IMMER WIEDER VOR !

Der Katalog ist nicht abschliessend und wird von Fall zu Fall ergänzt. Er kann Sie aber schon jetzt vor dem schlimmsten Fehlern bewahren.

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Obsolete Technology Tellye!


At 1928 Baird transmits from London to New York, using his mechanical system.with 30 vertical lines. By 1930 it was clear that mechanical television systems could never produce the picture quality required for commercial success. For this reason mechanical system was rapidly succeeded by the electronic TV systems. The first all-electronic American systems in 1932 used only 120 scanning lines at 24 frames per second Since the mid-1930s picture repetition frequency (field rate or frame rate) has been the same as the mains frequency, either 50 or 60Hz according to the frequency used in each country. This is for two very good reasons. Studio lighting generally uses alternating current lamps and if these were not synchronised with the field frequency, an unwelcome strobe effect could appear on TV pictures. Secondly, in days gone by, the smoothing of power supply circuits in TV receivers was not as good as it is today and ripple superimposed on the DC could cause visual interference. If the picture was locked to the mains frequency, this interference would at least be static on the screen and thus less obtrusive.To determine what electronic system to use, the BBC sponsored trial broadcasts by two systems, one by Baird, with 240 lines, and one by EMI with 405 lines. Scheduled electronic television broadcasting began in England in 1936 using 405-line system (lasted until the 1980s in the UK). Germany made their forst TV broadcasts at 1936 olympics using 180-line TV system. Germany also made their TV broadcasts by the fall of 1937 using a 441-line system. Also fFrance tested TV (455 line system). RCA introduced electronic television to the U. S. at the 1939 World’s Fair,and began regularly scheduled broadcasting at the same time (525 line system).In 1940 the USA established its 525-line standard. At year 1941 the 525-line standard, still in use today in USA, was adopted.Russia also produced TV sets before the war (240 and 343 line systems).World War Two interrupted the development of television. Immediately after World War Two production of TV sets started in the U.S-In USA there was TV broadcasts and few throusand receivers at 1945. In the early 1950s, two competing color TV systems emerged: CBS sequential color (used color wheel) and RCA dot sequential system. At 1953 color broadcasting officially arrives in the U.S. on Dec. 17, when FCC approves modified version of an RCA system.It calls this new RCA color system “NTSC” color. The first NTSC color TVs were on the marker at 1954.In Europe the TV broadcasts started to use experiment using 625 line system 1950s. This standard is used nowadays throughout Europe. France also tried 819 line system at the same time (this system was in use to 1980s). The rest of Europe opted for 625 lines, a system devised in 1946 by two German engineers, M??ller and Urtel (it appears that the Russians came up independently with a very similar system). The use of PAL color standard started at around 1967 and is still in use. The SECAM color system (used in France) testing started also at 1967. The TV broadcasting history has not ended. The newst thign is digital television. It is expected that terrestrial television will open up billion-dollar opportunities for those companies and organisations best prepared to embrace this new broadcasting era. At 1996 small digital satellite dishes hit the market. They become the biggest selling electronic item in history next to the VCR.

Using TV 24H

TV has something for everyone. Idiots, intellectuals, fans of all sorts. Some people are couch potatoes, watch anything just to sit there and be mindless. That’s their problem. Children have always needed to be monitored by their parents. If people gotta a mind for it they could figure out the real news even without the internet and there has always been a library.

Is TV bad in and of itself? The researchers aren’t saying that. But we all know that watching television is a solitary, isolating occupation that keeps you sedentary. Sitting in front of the boob tube reduces the time you have available to exercise, interact with your family, read books, and be outdoors. This new research dovetails with other studies, which have linked excessive TV time to obesity and higher rates of cardiovascular disease.

watching too much television can jeopardize your whole family’s health.

This should be a wake-up call to all adults. Stay active. Go outside. Spend time with your spouse and your children with the television off. Read a book and do crossword puzzles to stimulate your imagination and your brain. Reduce your screen time as much as you can.

The National Cancer Institute researchers suggest that watching TV is a public health issue. The price we are paying for our technology-driven lives may be much higher than we previously realized !


The Propaganda TV Machine a.k.a. The Ministry of Truth delivers The Truth from The Government to the people.

At least, that’s what they say. In fact, a Propaganda Machine is only employed by The Empire and used to brainwash people into Gullible Lemmings who believe that everything is all right when in fact, it isn’t, and that the very people who could help them are their enemies.

Happy Times:

Do you remember when a telly looked like a real telly?

When it was a piece of furniture that you lavished love on, even polished from time to time ?

When it was a piece of somewhat at looking in to ?

When it was a piece of Highest tech looking inside ?

First, this site is a Digital free, HD free, flat panel, HDMI, China, Turks, Afrika free zone.

All in all a wealth of vintage information at your finger tips, a one stop unique experience.

So step on in, leave the modern throw-away world behind, travel back in time to a vintage world of repair and enjoy.

This site has stirred memories about the watching TV’s days on a CRT TUBE television. Childhood memories, your parents getting their first colour tv, a b/w or color portable, perhaps memories of renting or buying your first set remote featured, perhaps your days working in the trade, selling or repairing them.

If you enjoyed this site, found its content left you all misty eyed then just talk about it as it would be very welcome. like the time to recover and restore a set . and happy reminiscing.

By all means, do what you can to understand basic principles first. Your success will be much more likely when you understand how a device works. If you can, read Electronics Now and Popular Electronics, as well as Nuts and Volts ( Also have a look at the Radio Amateur’s Handbook.

These periodicals are not carefully edited, unfortunately, and now and then things get into print that are simply wrong or misleading, but they are still useful, I learned quite a bit from their predecessors (Radio Craft and Radio News!).

I can’t speak firsthand, but it might be a very good idea to become (eventually) a Certified Electronic Technician. Look up the I.S.C.E.T.

Hearsay and folklore sometimes indicate that you should replace a given part when certain symptoms occur, and in the case of frequent failures of such parts, this information might even be true. But that’s no way to become a competent technician.

My personal take is that you have to know when to ‘let go’ of an hypothesis about what the cause of the trouble is. A tech. who persists beyond a certain point in his belief that such-and-such is causing the problem is stuck and spinning his wheels. (I’m sexist, I think women are far less likely to get stuck this way! I think it’s a male trait. 🙂

Troubleshooting is a special field of knowledge and has its own special outlook on things. The device did work, after all.

Production testing and troubleshooting is different, you are likely to be the first person to apply power to a device, and the device has never worked before. If the assemblers aren’t giving you excellent quality, you can have some remarkably-bizarre symptoms with a poorly laid-out board from solder shorts, for instance.

A variable toroidal autotransformer (universally known by what used to be a General Radio trade-name, Variac) is priceless for troubleshooting circuits that handle any amount of power and which are powered by the AC line. (Not all devices function at all at, say, half of rated AC input, I work on a poorly-designed amplifier that draws many amps at something like 70 volts with no signal and no load. Unfortunately, Variacs and their equivalents are horribly expensive, at least from some sources! If you get a used one, see that the contact area of the winding is undamaged, you might need to remove a knob and some covers to see it. If the knob is stiff, try some contact/control cleaner/lube, it did wonders for mine!

Learn how to operate a ‘scope, and learn why you see what you do. I suspect that some techs are not too well-informed about what goes on inside a ‘scope, learn from reliable sources!

Learn to use a digital multimeter, and an analog one as well, the latter is easily damaged if you don’t know what you’re doing, but it’s a great trend indicator.

Learn to use a function generator, and use the triangle output as well! Nothing like a triangle to show a wee bit of clipping or limiting in an amplifier.

Learn how to solder! Solder is not an adhesive, it’s a metallurgical bond, according to some sources I trust. It just about has to be with gold, at least! If you *really* want to learn soldering, NASA has developed training courses that will make you a disgustingly good solderer.

(From: Phillip R. Cline (

I used to repair consumer electronics from VERY high end stereos down to lowly boom boxes. When repairing stereos there is no substitute for good troubleshooting techniques which come from empirical means. Good knowledge of circuit functions helps a great deal. VCRs are almost always a mechanical problem (70% or more in my experience). Audio stuff can be destroyed by the user and often times the design is just plain crap. All low and mid-fi Japanese stuff made within the last ten years isn’t worth a crap from a design standpoint. Even a lot of the high-end stuff is junk. They have 71 volt rated caps running at 69 volts etc. US and most European stuff is way better designed! There are exceptions. I once saw a Philips amp that had a transformer for the power amp supply that wasn’t centertapped yet the supply was bipolar. They just rectified and filtered the AC with series caps and the common was the point they were connected to each other. This is fine if you rate the caps at more voltage than the power supply can deliver but these were rated at just over half the total voltage of the supply from rail to rail. One cap shorted and the other one exploded and launched the can sideways across the component side of the amp PC board. This basically did a nice job of depopulating the board along the ballistic path of the cap’s can. I laughed for a good while after seeing this.

I gave up repairing stuff when the customers asked, and rightly so, why it costs $80 to fix something that costs $100 new. The OEM parts cost on some stuff was intended to make the customer go buy a new unit instead of repairing the old one. This basically made most of the stuff disposable.

My background was and still is as an electronic hobbiest so the theory of operation was not a big deal and circuit function wasn’t either. I have a brother that was the person from whom I learned a great deal of what I know now about electronics.

Soldering ability cannot be overstressed in importance especially with SMT being very common nowadays. As for the guys that seem to be ripping you off in their pricing, they could be gouging you but most often the overhead in the shop and their cost on parts is the most likely cause of high pricing. While labor might seem high a great deal of repair can be accomplished in an hour by a competent technician and some shops have a flat rate for a given repair. This can work to the benefit of the shop sometimes and to the customer sometimes. Our shop was this way. We had the lowest pricing in town(Indianapolis) and the customers still bitched. Sometimes they would take their units after we gave them the price for labor and a estimate of parts cost. We didn’t charge for estimates. They would storm out only to come back with their tail between their legs in a few days after checking around for labor charges elsewhere. Depending on their attitude we might go ahead with the repair. Often times we would decline by telling the customer that the other shops may have done something while checking the unit out.(This depended on the shop that the customer took the unit to.) Some of these places had some real winners for techs!! We really didn’t feel like undoing some yoyo’s handiwork just to get the unit back to it’s original nonworking state!

An EE in electronics is useless by itself and will cause a lot of undue troubleshooting to the beginning tech. They will overlook the obvious easy stuff for some possible but unlikely fault. A few years of repairs under their belt though and they can find the most difficult electronic problems with relative ease.

The best way to become proficient is with hands-on training under an experienced tech. A good overall background in electronics doesn’t hurt either.

(From: Michael Black (blackm00@CAM.ORG).)

I think one of the problems of home repair is fear. If you’re willing to spend the money to have something repaired, Casino enghien les bains 31 decembre then you may think that if you fiddled with it you may make it worse. On the other hand, if you are about to throw something out because it doesn’t work, you have nothing to lose by playing around with it and trying to fix it. Or find some stuff other people have thrown out, and start with that.

You may not fix it, but your willingness to open the cover allows you a familiarity that you won’t get from a book. You de-mistify the equipment, and by actually adjusting things and seeing the results, you will learn.

I picked up a VCR for cheap at a garage sale this past summer. I was buying it as a tuner for use with a monitor. The guy said it “must be the power supply because it keeps turning off”. Actually, it kept turning off because the mechanics weren’t working properly. By moving the parts by hand, I saw how they were supposed to work. With the first hand experience, the S.E.R FAQ made more sense than if I’d just read it first, and so did a book on VCR repair that I took out of the library. I saw that the belts needed replacing because I’d figured out how things were supposed to work, and saw that they weren’t working that way.

(From: Malcolm MacArthur (

I have two years’ of an Electronic Engineering degree behind me (I gave up on the degree and became a computer programmer. ,) It has been little, if any, help. What you really need is experience. which you’ll only gain by fiddling with things. I’ve been doing repairs since about age 13. After twelve years, I now have a fair success rate, but those first few years were not easy. Best thing to do is get hold of old equipment and just have a go with it (Beware of CRTs, though ,). Be warned, you may break quite a lot of stuff initially! But as the others have said, most of the problems are due to mechanical failures (including dry solder joints).

THE Question: To Repair or Not to Repair


One of the themes, repeated more than once in emails to me and in reader feedback from Poptronix/Electronics Now was of the following general flavor:

“Why bother with repair of VCRs (or anything else) when I can buy a new model for $79.95?”

Actually, I’ve seen prices as low as $39.95 for a promotion (but not requiring the purchase of anything else)!


“This stuff may have been useful 5 years ago but now some/much of the material doesn’t apply to newer VCRs.”

While both of these deal with VCRs, it should be understood that it applies equally well to much other consumer electronics.

Depending on your background and interests, these statements may have some validity. Thus, the need for some objective (if possible) way of making a decision as to whether to bother at all, and whether to attempt the repair yourself.

So, when does it make sense to attempt *any* repair yourself rather than to toss the item in the trash or take it to a professional? People do this sort of stuff for several reasons:

For the challenge and rewards associated with success.

To save money.

Because they like a particular set of features or the controls or the styling of the equipment and don’t want anything new!

To avoid cluttering land-fills.

The first of these is likely most relevant to the readers of the S.E.R FAQs.

It’s quite difficult to suggest an approach in deciding when something is worth repairing. You have to decide how much the equipment is worth to *you* in terms of monetary, sentimental, or other value, how much time you are willing to put into a repair, and whether the failure represents a good excuse to upgrade! To what extent each of the factors is significant will also be determined by how much you enjoy troubleshooting and tinkering. If you’d rather be doing something else or keep thinking about all the time you are spending on this rather than something you can charge for, perhaps you should be doing that something else.

However, it is easier to identify specific situations where equipment probably *isn’t* worth attempting to repair on your own (or possibly at all):

Serious damage due to water (especially salt water), fire or smoke. Even if the obvious faults can be found and corrected, there are likely to be latent failures just waiting to strike in a few weeks or months.

Lightning strike. Lightning is like the 900 pound gorilla – it can go anywhere it wants. Even if you can repair the obvious damage and get the equipment working, there could be hidden problems waiting to appear at a later time due to components that aren’t totally fried but just weakened.

Extremely high electrical power surge like a 13,000 V feeder line falling across the 115 V wiring to your house. Similar comments as lightning apply.

Where any of these are covered by insurance, that is the best option where the settlement is at all reasonable. If the insurance company allows you to keep the damaged equipment, there is nothing to stop you from attempting repairs as a challenge – you may get lucky. But, it could also be a long drawn out and expensive frustration.

Serious physical damage, especially for equipment with mechanical parts like VCRs. It may be impossible to replace broken parts. Twisted metal can be straightened but there is a good chance there will still be erratic misbehavior.

Equipment where prior attempts at repair may have resulted in an undetermined number of new unidentified problems. At least when something breaks on its own, your only opposition is the device itself. But, if another person attempts a repair and they are a novice or just plain incompetent, the dumpster may be the best solution.

Equipment with known design or manufacturing problems. When we undertake a repair, one assumption that is usually made is that the equipment originally worked correctly and/or that the fault isn’t something that was designed in before the name went on. 🙂 For most things, this is a valid assumption. Even the famous RCA/GE/Proscan and Sony TV solder problems, while no doubt resulting in 100s of thousands of sets ending up in the trash, are repairable with modest effort at low cost. And, the result is a well performing reliable TV. However, some computer monitors may die when fed a particular scan rate or during boot when mated with a particular video card – a design flaw which may not have a (known) solution.

Newer throw-aways. I can pretty much guarantee that a $39.95 VCR isn’t worth any effort unless the problem is obvious. This junk is built as cheaply as possible with a lot of plastic parts, no thought given to access for testing or repair, and with attention only to the short term bottom line. There has been no miraculous invention to reduce construction cost of the relatively complex VCR mechanism – it comes out of reliability.

Equipment like cell phones, pagers, and other modern wireless devices as well as cordless phones, PC mainboards, peripheral boards, and disk drives, TV set-top, cable boxes, satellite receivers, etc. It is essentially impossible to obtain service information on any of these so unless the problem is an obvious broken connector or broken trace on the printed circuit board, or possibly a dead power supply, forget it. You don’t have the documentation, test equipment, rework equipment, or any chance of buying many of the repair parts in any case.

Any situation where safety would be compromised by your repair. For example, attempting to reconstruct a smashed microwave oven door or jerryrigging a flyback transformer that has serious arcing. Where items (1) to (3) are involved, one must very carefully inspect for any possible safety related damage (like charred insulation in hidden areas) that may not have affected operation.

If you really don’t know what you are doing, leave it to a professional! Not only is it dangerous to be poking around inside many types of equipment if you don’t even know what not to touch, there is a strong likelihood that such attempts will cause additional, possibly fatal damage to the circuitry. Even if the equipment can be repaired, the ultimate cost will end up be much greater than had you not done anything in the first place, both in terms of labor (troubleshooting and repair) and parts. If you can’t justify a professional repair, just set it aside until you have gained more experience and can deal with the equipment safely (for you and it).

Finally, don’t attempt to repair a piece of equipment for which you are not equipped in the tools or test equipment department. Attempting to remove a part from a multilayer printed circuit board without proper desoldering equipment will just make an unsalvageable mess. Guessing at a replacement part (“I heard that the flyback transformer is a likely cause for a dead monitor.”) will just end up being frustrating and expensive (unless you’ve won the Lottery recently in which case maybe your luck is still holding).

In the good old days when life and electronics were simpler and you could count the total number of transistors in a TV on your hands and feet, service information was included with the equipment or was readily available either from the manufacturer or Sams Technical Publishing (formerly Howard Sams) as Sams’ Photofacts (no relation to me). There are still Sams’ Photofacts for many TVs at least, but for anything else, obtaining schematics may be impossible or even if they are available, the cost may be excessive. Paying $100 for a mediocre copy of a service manual for a computer monitor that can be replaced for $250 may not be justified.

One way to get an idea of your chances of success for popular brands and models is to search the archives of the USENET newsgroup via Google Groups (formerly There are other public USENET archives but even though this archive keeps changing its name, I see little reason to use others which may come and go and provide less reliable coverage.) Where others have experienced – and repaired – similar problems, your chances of success are greatly increased. Then, if you have detailed symptoms, asking for suggestions on that newsgroup may also be beneficial, especially if you have already done some initial testing. If, on the other hand, the consensus from the newsgroup is that your problem is hopeless, then you may be able to save a lot of time and frustration by giving up immediately (or at least postponing your efforts until you have more experience.

What about older equipment?:

The basic technology of TVs and VCRs hasn’t changed significantly in 10 or 15 years. Yes, there are convenience features like “auto clock set” which are supposed to make life easier but often don’t (if the station transmitting the clock information has their clocks set wrong or uses a feed from a source in a different time zone!). But as far as picture and sound quality, that VCR from 10 years ago will be just as good or better than one purchased today. Any, it will almost certainly be better constructed and more maintainable.

For example, Panasonic VCRs from the mid to late ’80s were solid machines that could be kept in shape with a bit of periodic maintenance (cleaning, rubber parts replacement) and repair of known problems (failed electrolytic capacitors in the power supply after 10 years or so). One could not expect that $39.95 special to provide such service. If it lasts through the warranty period, you’re probably ahead of the game. I’d still take a middle age Panasonic over any new low to medium priced model. And, even the high-end VCRs may be based on flimsy chassis.

Case studies:

Here are 4 examples of equipment that I did eventually repair but where serious consideration should have been given to the dumpster. The following can be found described in more detail at in the document: Sam’s Repair Briefs/

GE TV dropped: (From: Repair Brief #69: GE Portable Color TV – Dropped.)

This TV had taken a nose dive off of a 4 foot shelf onto an unknown surface. And, of course, someone had probably attempted to operate after this with possible additional damage. While the exterior didn’t show any major abuse, it was obvious that there was severe trauma as soon as the back was removed. The main circuit board was broken near the (heavy) flyback transformer. Several dozen traces were severed including some to surface mount parts.

A repair shop would be unlikely to want to tackle this for several reasons: (1) the obvious repairs to circuit board traces would take a couple hours at least, (2) there could be unseen damage to the CRT in form of a distorted shadow mask and this wouldn’t be known until the circuit board was fixed, and (3) any repair might not catch everything so future problems could develop.

As it turned out, the only damage was to the circuit board and after 2 or 3 hours of soldering – and then finding additional traces to solder – the set was fixed, and has continued to operate reliably for many years.

GE TV with ‘rivlets’: (From: Repair Brief #59: GE 13AC1504W Color TV – Dead (with Other Problems)).

In the early 1980s, some brilliant manufacturing engineer working for GE decided that a good way to save money on circuit boards would be to use what were dubbed ‘rivlets’ instead of actual plated through holes to connect top and bottom. A rivlet is basically a rivet which, the theory goes, is then soldered to the copper traces. That’s the theory. In practice, due to the thermal mass of the rivet, soldering was never reliable. And, as a result of thermal cycling, cracks developed between the rivet and traces over time. Problems ranged from a dead set to loss of color depending on which rivlet happened to be unhappy on any given day.

Attempting to repair just the problem rivlets was impossible because as soon as you found a bad one and soldered it, another in its vicinity would decide to fail. The only approach that worked was to reheat every one that could be located using a soldering gun. Since there were many dozens of these on the circuit board, this took quite awhile and it was easy to miss some. In fact, the only truly reliable repair would be to remove the solder from each rivlet, snake a bare wire through it, and solder the wire directly to the traces top and bottom. This repair would also take a couple hours and likely be too expensive for a small TV, though if the same chassis were used on a 27 incher, might be worth it.

CD player restoration: (From: Repair Brief #10: Pioneer PD5100 CD Player Trashed).

Here is a case of a piece of equipment being partially destroyed by previous repair attempts. The Pioneer PD5100 is a basic solid CD player but this one had broken parts in the loading mechanism and was in unknown operational condition. If it were taken to a repair shop, the response would probably be something along the lines of: “Well, that certainly looks like a CD player.”. It simply wouldn’t be worth the time and effort to repair what was obviously broken with the possibility of finding more serious electronic problems after that.

I had nothing better to do (!!) so decided to attempt to restore it to something usable. After repairing the mechanical damage, there was indeed a servo problem which ultimate required the replacement of a motor driver chip – for which I got lucky. The player would read the disc directory but was unable to seek to any track, even #1. One of the chips was getting hot. So, I replaced it and after servo alignment, the play problems were cured. If that hadn’t worked, there was probably little more I could have done. Very likely, the servo chip was the original problem and the previous repair attempt created the mechanical mess.

Sony TV with bad butchered soldering: (From: Repair Brief #81: Sony KV-19TR20 Color TV – No Reception).

The final example is of a Sony TV that had the infamous tuner/IF box solder problems. This is normally a fairly easy repair, especially for this particular model where the IF box (which was faulty in this case) is readily accessible without taking the whole thing to bits. Once repaired, like the RCA/GE/Proscan TVs with similar solder problems, the result is a solid reliable TV. However, the friend of a friend who had attempted to replace it, apparently used a Weller soldering gun to do the fine soldering, leaving nearly every pad detached or missing. Fortunately, only the pads appeared to have suffered and after 20 minutes and several jumper wires, this one was healthy again.

A variety of techniques are used to secure the covers on consumer electronic equipment:

Screws. Yes, many still use this somewhat antiquated technique. Sometimes, there are even embossed arrows on the case indicating which screws need to be removed to get at the guts. In addition to obvious screw holes, there may be some that are only accessible when a battery or cassette compartment is opened or a trim panel is popped off.

These will often be of the Philips variety. (Strictly speaking, many of these are not actual Philips head screws but a slight variation. Nonetheless, a Philips screwdriver of suitable size will work on them.) A precision jeweler’s screwdriver set including miniature Philips head drivers is a must for repair of miniature portable devices.

Sometimes, you will find Torx or a variety of security type fasteners. Suitable driver bits are available. Sometimes, you can improvise using regular tools. In the case of security Torx, the center post can usually be broken off with a pair of needlenose pliers allowing a normal Torx driver to be used. In a pinch, a suitable size hex wrench can substitute for a Torx driver. Places like MCM Electronics carry a variety of security bits.

Hidden screws. These will require prying up a plug or peeling off a decorative decal. It will be obvious that you were tinkering – it is virtually impossible to put a decal back in an undetectable way. Sometimes the rubber feet can be pryed out revealing screw holes. For a stick-on label, rubbing your finger over it may permit you to locate a hidden screw hole. Just puncture the label to access the screw as this may be less messy then attempting to peel it off.

Snaps. Look around the seam between the two halves. You may (if you are lucky) see points at which gently (or forcibly) pressing with a screwdriver will unlock the covers. Sometimes, just going around the seam with a butter knife will pop the cover at one location which will then reveal the locations of the other snaps.

Glue. Or more likely, the plastic is fused together. This is particularly common with AC adapters (wall warts). In this case, I usually carefully go around the seam with a hacksaw blade taking extreme care not to go through and damage internal components. Reassemble with plastic electrical tape.

It isn’t designed for repair. Don’t laugh. I feel we will see more and more of this in our disposable society. Some devices are totally potted in Epoxy and are throwaways. With others, the only way to open them non-destructively is from the inside.

Don’t force anything unless you are sure there is no alternative – most of the time, once you determine the method of fastening, covers will come apart easily If they get hung up, there may be an undetected screw or snap still in place.

The most annoying (to be polite) situation is when after removing the 18 screws holding the case together (losing 3 of them entirely and mangling the heads on 2 others), removing three subassemblies, and two other circuit boards, you find that the adjustment you wanted was accessible through a hole in the case just by partially peeling back a rubber hand grip! Been there, done that. 🙁

And on the still lighter side, from an IBM maintenance manual, circa 1925 (displayed in the Chicago Museum of Science & Industry):

“All parts should go together without forcing. You must remember that all the parts you are reassembling were disassembled by you. Therefore, if you can’t get them together again, there must be a reason. By all means, do not use a hammer.”

When reassembling the equipment make sure to route cables and other wiring such that they will not get pinched or snagged and possibly broken or have their insulation nicked or pierced and that they will not get caught in moving parts. Replace any cable ties that were cut or removed during disassembly and add additional ones of your own if needed. Some electrical tape may sometimes come in handy to provide insulation insurance as well.

For those hard-to-open LCD panels:

(From: Onat Ahmet (

The LCD display housings are usually secured by plastic catches built into the case. They still may have a couple of screws that are positioned in the most innovative places! Obvious places are sides of the display, and under stickers (rub your finger over a sticker and see if you can feel the hole for a screw). Also, try to look around the hinge connecting the LCD to the main housing. Look with the LCD closed, and also open, rotating open the housing might hide some screws from view. Expect it to be awkward! BTW, do not forget small hatches, that do not look like one!

After that, it is patience, and knowing the right place to twist the case to pop it open. Try not to use screwdrivers, they leave unsightly marks along the seam.

Also, if it is your own unit, and you break a few of the catches along the way, do not worry, you can put the housing back together with a few spots of adhesive.

Digital TV in Brief.

Digital television is a hot topic now.If you have looked at television sets at any of the big electronics retailers lately, you know that Digital TV, or DTV, is a BIG deal right now in the U.S. In Europe Digital TV is also a hot topic, because many countries have started terrestrial digital TV broadcasts and plan to end analogue broadcasts after some years (will take 5-10 years). Satellite TV broadcasts have also shifted very much to digital broadcasts.The main advantage if digital broadcasts are that it does not havethe picture quality problems of analogue TVs (it had it’s own videoproblems caused by video compression), it allowes putting more TV channels to same medium (TV channel frequencies and satellites) and it allows new services (like HDTV and interactive multimedia). The digital brodcasts are generally designed to use such modulation that the digital data stream (typically around 20-30 Mbit/s) is modulated to the same bandwidth (around 6 MHz) as the analogue TV broadcasts. The used modulation vary between different media, which means thatdifferent modulation techniques are used in terrestrial transmissions, cable TV and xpokies no deposit bonus codes australia 2020 satellite. Different modulations are used because of the different characteristics of those transmission medias. There is not on “digital TV”, but several different variations of it in use.The basic technology of digital TV, known as MPEG 2 video compressionand MPEG 2 transmission stream format, is same around the world, butis is used somewhat differently in different standards used in differentcountries.

USA uses ACTS Digital Televisio Standard, which standardizes NTSC format transmissions, HDTV transmission, sound formats and data signal modulation in use. The ATSC MPEG-2 formats for DTV, including HDTV, uses 4:2:0 samling for video signal. The US system uses a fixed power and a fixed maximum bitrate, at which some bits are always transmitted. That rate is typically 19.3 Mb/sec.

Europe uses DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) standard. This standardallows basically normal PAL resolution transmisssion (vasically HDTVcould be added later but is not yet standardized) with several audio formats, digital data rates and digital signal modulation. There are several different variations fo DVB standard for different media:

DVB-T for terrestrial broadcasts

DVB-S for satellite

DVB-C for cable TV

Those different DVB versions varyon the data signal modulation methods, error correction and frequency bands used. DVB and option for some interactive extra services, but thestandardization of this is not ready here yet(there are fire different incompatible interactive servicessystems in use in different countries and by different broadcasters).

The process of transmitting digital TV signal is the following: Analog video/audio – digitisation – MPEG compression – Multiplexing ( youcan now call it digital) – Preparation for transmisson – modulation toanalog carrier.Reception process is the following: Demodulation of analogue carrier – Error correction – Demultiplexing – MPEG decompression – DA conversion to get analogue signal (unless you use digital display). The analoguie video signal that gets digitized can be practically from any video source, for example produced with old analogue video production equipment and distributed with a video tape. In high-end system the information is analogue only in the image sensor on the video camera, and from this on the signal gets digitally processed. In many real-life TV production systems the reality is something between those two extremes.

At least in Europe, the signal level requirements for DVB-T are well below the analog requirements, so the transmitter power is much less than on the analog side. In the NorDig recommendation the minimum received signal level for 64QAM, 7/8 code rate with a Rayleigh fading path and 8 dB receiver noise figure would be -64 dBm. With other code rates, modulations and fading mechanisms, the requirement is lower. Many receivers can perform much better at conditions where there is no fading (a quasi error free less than one uncorrected error/hour signal even at 27 dBuV (-82 dBm) with 64QAM and 8 MHz channel width). For analog signals, the recommended level is more than 1 mV (+60 dBuV, -49 dBm). While the ERP can be at least 10 dB lower than analog, the question of power consumption is more complicated, since COFDM with 64QAM carriers require a quite good linearity, which may affect the efficiency and hence power consumption.

Digital TV system in use in USA

The FCC mandate to change our broadcast standards from NTSC analog to ATSC digital broadcasting (DTV) is big bold move, requiring changes in everything from the way the studios shoot video, the format that’s transmitted, to the equipment we use to receive and watch broadcastsDTV (digital TV) applies to digital broadcasts in general and to the U.S. ATSC standard in specific. The ATSC standard includes both standard-definition (SD) and high-definition (HD) digital formats. The notation H/DTV is often used to specifically refer to high-definition digital TV. The federal mandate grants the public airwaves to the broadcasters to transmit digital TV in exchange for return of the current analog NTSC spectrum, allowing for a transition period in the interim. At the end of this period scheduled for 2006, broadcasters must be fully converted to the 8VSB broadcast standard. Digital Television (“DTV”) is a new broadcast technology that will transform television. The technology of DTV will allows TV broadcasts with movie-quality picture and CD- quality sound and a variety of other enhancements (for example data delivery). With digital television, broadcasters will be able to offer free television of higher resolution and better picture quality than now exists under the current mode of TV transmission. If broadcasters so choose, they can offer what has been called “high definition television” or HDTV, television with theater-quality pictures and CD-quality sound. . Alternatively, a broadcaster can offer several different TV programs at the same time, with pictures and sound quality better than is generally available today. HDTV (high-definition TV) encompasses both analog and digital televisions that have a 16:9 aspect ratio and approximately 5 times the resolution of standard TV (double vertical, double horizontal, wider aspect). High definition is generally defined as any video signal that is at least twice the quality of the current 480i (interlaced) analog broadcast signal. There are 18 approved formats for digital TV broadcasts, but only two (720p/1080i) are proper definition of the term HDTV. The advent of high definition has allowed monitors to read images differently, either in standard interlaced format or progressively. Sets that do not have any decoding capabilities but can display the high-resolution image is often labeled as “HD-Ready” a term that describes 80% or more of the Digital TVs on the market. HDTV displays support digital connections such as HDMI (DVI) and IEEE 1394/FireWire, although standardization is not finished. HDTV in the US is part of the ATSC DTV format. The resolution and frame rates of DTV in the US generally correspond to the ATSC recommendations for SD (640×480 and 704×480 at 24p, 30p, 60p, 60i) and HD (1280×720 at 24p, 20p, and 60p, 1920×1080 at 24p, 30p and 60i). In addition, a broadcaster will be able to simultaneously transmit a variety of other information through a data bitstream to both enhance its TV programs and to provide entirely new services. The technical specifications of USA DTV system is defined in ACTS Digital Television Standards.

Digital TV in Europe

Digital TV brodacasting in Europe is done according to DVB standards. DVB technology has become an integral part of global broadcasting, setting the global standard for satellite, cable and terrestrial transmissions and equipment. There are three versions of DVB in use: DVB-S, DVB-C and DVB-T.DVB-T is a flexible system allowing terrestrial broadcastersto choose from a variety of options to suit their various service environments. This allows the choice between fixed roof-top antenna, portableand even mobile reception of DVB-T services. Broadly speaking the trade-off in one of service bit-rate versus signal robustness.

DVB-T network is very flexible. Having many transmitters all on the same frequency is not a problem for the used COFDM based system. COFDM has been chosen and designed to minimise the effects of multipath in obstructed reception areas. In fact multipath signals can significantly improve the overall received signal with no adverse effects. These properties are particularly valuable for radio cameras and mobile links. DVB-T because of its unique design which allows single frequency networks (SFN). This means that many transmitters along the planned routes can transmit on the same frequency. It is also possible to use simple gap fillers that amplify and retransmit the signal. In-air digital TV broadcasts in Europe use DVB-T. 8 MHz of bandwidth may be used to provide a 24 Mbps digital transmission path using Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (COFDM) modulation (theoretical maximum 31.67 Mbits for 8 MHz bandwidth). In cases where less bandwidth is available (6 or 7 MHz), the data rate is somewhat lower (around 20 Mbit/s).

DVB-C does the same function as DVB-T, but the modulation used in this system is optimized to operate well in cable TV networks. The modulation used in DVB-C is QAM. Systems from 16-QAM up to 256-QAM can be used, but the system centres on 64-QAM, in which an 8MHz channel can accommodate a physical payload of about 38 Mbit/s. Digital cable TV in Europe uses DVB-C. The DVB standard for the cable return path has been developed jointly with DAVIC, the Digital Audio Visual Council. The specification uses Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation in a 200kHz, 1MHz or 2MHz channel to provide a return path for interactive services (from the user to the service provider) of up to about 3Mbit/s. The path to the user may be either in-band (embedded in the MPEG-2 Transport Stream in the DVB-C channel) or out-of-band (on a separate 1 or 2MHz frequency band).

DVB-S is the satellite version of DVB. Satellite transmission has lead the way in delivering digital TV to viewers. Established in 1995, the satellite standard DVB-S is the oldest DVB standard, used on all six major continents. QPSK modulation system is used, with channel coding optimised to the error characteristics of the channel. A typical satellite channel has 36 MHz bandwidth, which may support transmission at up to 38 Mbps (assuming delivery to a 0.5m receiving antenna) using Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation. 16 bytes of Reed Solomon (RS) coding are added to each 188 byte transport packet to provide Forward Error Correction (FEC) using a RS(204,188,8) code. For the satellite transmission, the resultant bit stream is then interleaved and convolutional coding is applied.

The core of the DVB digital data stream isthe standard MPEG-2 “data container”,which holds the broadcast and service information.This flexible “carry-all” can containanything that can be digitised, includingmultimedia data. The MPEG-2 standards define how to format the various component parts of a multimedia programme (which may consist of: MPEG-2 compressed video, compressed audio, control data and/or user data). It also defines how these components are combined into a single synchronous transmission bit stream. The process of combining the steams is known as multiplexing. The multiplexed stream may be transmitted over a variety of links, standards / products.Each MPEG-2 MPTS multiplex carries a number of streams which in combination deliver the required services. A typical data rate of such multiplex is around 24 Mbps for terrestrial brodcasts.

European DVB systems currently transmit only standard definition TV signals and set top boxes also handle only normal TV resolution. It would be possible to transmit HDTV signals on DVB data stream, but those broadcasts have not yet started in any wide scale. There is one satellite broadcater that broadcasts HDTV DVB signals in Europe (some cable TV operators carry that signal on their cable).

Many DVB-T integrated TV sets, and some set top boxes, in the Europe come with a Common Interface slot – which is pretty much the same form-factor as a PC Card (aka PCMCIA) used in PC laptops. This CI slot accepts a Conditional Access Module, in the same way that DVB-S receivers do, which implements at least one (some can do more than one) decryption algorithm. This CAM may also, itself, have a smart card slot to accept a consumer subscription card to authorise decryption – you plug your smartcard into your CAM and your CAM into the CI slot in your receiver/IDTV. Some DVB receivers have an integrated CAM (in the case of some receivers this is implemented purely in software, with no extra hardware required) rather than a CI slot to plug in a 3rd party device. With these type of receivers you just plug in the smart card and don’t have to worry about CI slots and buying CAMs. So there is an interface standard for DVB – but different broadcasters can chose different encryption schemes, requiring different CAMs for decryption.

Here is a list of several DVB standards and related specifications:

EN 300 744: Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), Framing structure, channel coding and modulation for digital terrestrial television.

TS 101 191: Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), Mega-frame for Single Frequency Network (SFN) synchronization.

N 50083-9: Cable distribution systems for television sound and interactive services, Part 9: Interfaces for CATV/SMATV headends and similar professional equipment for DVB/MPEG-2 transport streams.

ETR 290: Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), Measurement guidelines for DVB systems.

TR 101 190: Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), Implementation guidelines for DVB terrestrial services, Transmission aspects.

ISO/IEC 13818-1: Information technology ? Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Systems.

DVB Standards and related documents are published by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). These include a large number of standards and technical notes to complement the MPEG-2 standards defined by the ISO.

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